Daily Artificial Intelligence News Roundup #108

1. Ethics Review Boards and AI Self-Driving Cars

By Lance Eliot, the AI Trends Insider

As a driver of a car, you are continually making judgments that involve life-or-death matters. We don’t tend to think explicitly about this aspect of driving and take it for granted most of the time. We can rationalize what we did by offering an explanation, but the explanation itself might have little to do with what really happened inside our heads. Read More

2. Head of MIT-IBM Watson Research Lab on How AI Will Get to the Next Level

By David Cox, Director, MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab

Industry and academia have collaborated in artificial intelligence research for decades, but in recent years the power balance in this relationship has shifted in ways that are detrimental to AI progress and the sustainability of the field.

Most existing arrangements between industry and academia are either “work for hire,” which often is too narrowly defined to attract the brightest minds in academia to participate, or “buy the lab,” which effectively end collaborations by hiring researchers away from academia and prevent the next generation of AI talent from receiving the education and research opportunities that will lead to AI progress in the future, cannibalizing the future pipeline to serve the needs of the present.

A new working model between industry and academia is needed, one in which stable, long-term industry-academic partnerships enable continued AI advancement while preserving our society’s capacity to conduct fundamental research and train future generations of AI experts. Read More

3. Debugging of AI Self-Driving Cars

By Lance Eliot, the AI Trends Insider

Do you know how the word “debugging” originated. The debugging at that juncture often occurs because something in the system environment has changed and so the code itself has to be changed too.

What does this discussion of debugging have to do with AI self-driving cars. Read More

4. Explainable AI: What Happens Inside the Black Box – News – Carnegie Mellon University

October 15, 2018

Explainable AI: What Happens Inside the Black Box

Carnegie Mellon University Professor Leman Akoglu specializes in anomaly detection models.

A successful anomaly detection model will comb through transactions on those reports and flag items that seem out of place so they can be investigated.

But it is not always enough to know that an anomaly exists, Akoglu said. Read More

5. [1810.06645] Using Sentiment Representation Learning to Enhance Gender Classification for User Profiling

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6. [1810.06683] FlowQA: Grasping Flow in History for Conversational Machine Comprehension

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7. [1810.06985] Non-computability of human intelligence

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8. HealthyHomes: Predicting local air quality for healthy housing decisions

Nearly 1 in 10 childhood asthma cases in Los Angeles are due to traffic pollution exposures. Knowing these local risks matter, as airborne pollutant concentrations can vary by a factor of eight across a single block, and long-term exposures to pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and black carbon, are a major driver of a number of chronic health problems.

As a Fellow in the Insight Health Data Science program, I decided to tackle this problem by creating a web-app, HealthyHomes, to predict address-level pollutant exposures. Read More

9. Threat Intelligence Computing for Efficient Cyber Threat Hunting

Threat discovery in cybersecurity is like scientific discovery: both start from observations, such as an anomalous cyber activity or an interesting fact; both require hypothesis conception, such as what malicious intent is behind the activity or what causes the fact; both develop hypotheses regarding additional observations and finally validate them. Watson Research Center recently developed a cyber reasoning paradigm named threat intelligence computing (TIC) to formalize and facilitate the threat discovery process.

Our paper “Threat Intelligence Computing” presents a concrete realization of TIC through the design and implementation of a domain-specific language τ-calculus with a specialized graph database and peripheral systems. Read More

10. Bringing AI into the enterprise: A functional approach to the technologies of intelligence

This is a keynote highlight from the Artificial Intelligence Conference in London 2018. Watch the full version of this keynote on O’Reilly’s online learning platform.

You can also see other highlights from the event. Read More

11. This AI thinks like you to solve problems

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12. Boston Dynamics’ SpotMini Can Dance Now

At IROS in Madrid a few weeks ago, Marc Raibert showed a few new videos during his keynote presentation. One was of Atlas doing parkour, which showed up on YouTube last week, and the other was just a brief clip of SpotMini dancing, which Raibert said was a work in progress.

With that in mind, if I were writing a paper about dancing robots, I’d probably say something like:

I’m not writing a paper about dancing robots, because I’m not in the least bit qualified, but the folks at ANYbotics and the Robotics Systems Lab at ETH Zurich definitely are, and that was the intro to their 2018 IROS paper on “Real-Time Dance Generation to Music for a Legged Robot. Read More

13. Robot will ring NYSE closing bell

A robot will ring the closing bell at the NYSE on Wednesday. The honored machine is a UR5e collaborative robot made by Universal Robots (UR), which is the market leader in the growing category of flexible, collaborative industrial automation. Universal Robots has jumped out to a commanding lead and controls 60 percent of the global cobot market. Read More

14. We can now customize cancer cures, tumor by tumor

The first time someone pitched Genentech’s senior leadership on a personalized cancer vaccine, it did not go well. Cancer immunotherapy, which uses a person’s own immune system to attack tumors, is now one of medicine’s most promising fields, and one of the greatest breakthroughs in oncology in decades. If Genentech, a San Francisco–based biotech company owned by the Swiss pharma giant Roche, were to attempt to develop a vaccine that could attack individual tumors, it wouldn’t just have to accept new scientific advances; it would also have to embrace an entirely new and untested business model. Read More

15. DNA-based molecular computing will pave the way for programmable pills

Specific signaling molecules, their concentration, and the way this changes over time are some of the factors that go into this system. But the total amount of p53 released can be the same in both cases.

Modern molecular sensors cannot spot this difference. Read More

16. These New Tricks Can Outsmart Deepfake Videos—for Now

“It is really blurry,” says Lyu. He doesn’t mean the images. As Lyu noted in a piece for The Conversation, “blinking can be added to deepfake videos by including face images with closed eyes or using video sequences for training. Read More

17. 10 things you – and your government – should know about competitiveness in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

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